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    Measuring Time-of-Flight in an Ultrasonic LPS System Using Generalized Cross-Correlation

    TítuloMeasuring Time-of-Flight in an Ultrasonic LPS System Using Generalized Cross-Correlation
    Tipo de publicaciónJournal Article
    Año de publicación2011
    AutoresVilladangos, JM, Ureña, J, Garcia, JJ, Mazo, M, Hernández, Á, Jiménez, A, Ruíz, D, Marzziani, CD
    Idioma de publicaciónEnglish
    Revista académicaSensors
    Páginas10326 - 10342
    Fecha de publicación11/2011
    Lugar de publicaciónBasilea
    Palabras clavegeneralized cross-correlation; ultrasonic LPS; phase transform; Kasami codes

    In this article, a time-of-flight detection technique in the frequency domain is described for an ultrasonic Local Positioning System (LPS) based on encoded beacons. Beacon transmissions have been synchronized and become simultaneous by means of the DS-CDMA (Direct-Sequence Code Division Multiple Access) technique. Every beacon has been associated to a 255-bit Kasami code. The detection of signal arrival instant at the receiver, from which the distance to each beacon can be obtained, is based on the application of the Generalized Cross-Correlation (GCC), by using the cross-spectral density between the received signal and the sequence to be detected. Prior filtering to enhance the frequency components around the carrier frequency (40 kHz) has improved
    estimations when obtaining the correlation function maximum, which implies an
    improvement in distance measurement precision. Positioning has been achieved by using hyperbolic trilateration, based on the Time Differences of Arrival (TDOA) between a reference beacon and the others.